If you are not sure how to format something according to the APA standard, ask the JEPS editors who will give you quick and precise answers. All questions about APA style and formatting are welcome. You can find the complete list of the already answered questions below. To ask a question, fill out the form at the bottom of this page.
I tried to find information about APA Style at apa.org, but there was nothing. Where can I learn more about APA Style?
Well there's a book called "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association". The 6th Edition was published in 2009. See if your library has bought a copy. Alternatively, there are some online resources you could use (which, however, are not extensive as the original, naturally). See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/ for example
How to I format tables in APA Style?
In general, it is useful to illustrate data that requires two or more columns in a table. Otherwise it is sufficient to explain the data in the text. Data should be organized logically in several columns, so not everything has to be represented in a table.
Numbers: Beginning at the top, you should number all tables with Arabic numerals sequentially. If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, then you should identify the various tables with capital letter and Arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2).
How to take care of the headings and body of the table?
Headings: As far as the headings are concerned, keep them short, but clear, so that they do not surpass the widest entry in the column. All columns must have headings, even the stub column (see example structure), which customarily lists the major independent variables.
Body: The basic rule when you report data is consistency. Therefore, numbers should be expressed in a consistent way (always use the same decimal places) and the unit of measurement as well as the number of decimal places should not be changed in the core of the table.
For more detailed information, you can check out this webside (we will post a more detailed information about how to format APA tables in the following month, so keep yourself updated):
If I cite a study from another article, i.e., not a study I've read myself, but one I've taken from a citation in a literature review, how do i cite that? I know that's supposed to be possible, at least the person leading my seminar said it's ok...
You have to show both sources.
So if you read Smith (2011) referring to a study by Johnson (2009) you have to write: Johnson (2009) showed that... (as cited in Smith, 2011). Or: There is evidence that A could correlate with under certain circumstances (Johnson, 2009, as cited in Smith, 2011).
What is a running head?
The running head is basically a shorter version of your title, which appears on all pages of your manuscript or published article. According to APA guidelines, the running head should not exceed 50 characters, punctuation and spacing included. It should also appear flush left at the top of the page in uppercase letters. You can easily insert the running head by editing the header of your manuscript. Then, it should automatically appear on all subsequent pages.
how do you set up a bulletin for apa
If you mean, how to set up a bulletin in APA style, you should adhere to the following rules:
1. Keep in mind that your article should be written in APA style according to its rules of formatting (headings, citation, references).
2, Cite bulletins in the text of the paper or article by listing the author, the year and the page number in parentheses. For example: (Center for Food Safety, 2010, p. 3).
3. Cite a bulletin in a reference list with the author of a bulletin, publication date, title (in italics and include which issue if necessary), publisher's location and the publisher. For example: Center of Medicine. (2010). HPS Virus Bulletin: 2nd Issue. Hong Kong. Center of Medicine.
4.Reference a bulletin in an endnote or footnote following the same rules as a reference list.
If you are writing your research when do you use et al. and when do you have to write down all the names? More specifically after how many writers do you reference to writer 1 et al (year)?
As far as APA guidelines are concerend:
Having a work by two authors, in signal phrasye such as writing their names in parentheses, you would cite both of their names. Be careful, employing their names in the text, you would employ "and" between their names when referring to their work, whereas in parentheses, you would use the ampersand.
When you refer to a work by three to five authors, list all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses when you cite something from their article for the first time. If you refer to them in subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
If you refer to six authors or more, write down the name of the first author and then use et al. directly when referring to them in the text. The references, nevertheless should employ all their names. Good Luck!
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)
In addition to p-values, is it mandatory to indicate effect size (Cohen's d and the like)?
APA Style says "it is almost always necessary to include some measure of effect size" (p. 34), whereas both original units and standardised measures (Cohen's d) are allowed. In principle, it is important to provide enough background information for the reader for them to understand the results, APA Style leaves it to the author to decide what data would be most reasonable to achieve that.
Dear JEPS Editors, I have two questions regarding headings and sub-headings in the new APA style format. 1) Is it still possible to create sub-headings in the introduction of an article? The manuscript guidelines explain the levels of headings in general in great detail, but I am slightly confused because the headline of the introduction section differs from methods, results etc. Intuitively I would use level 2 headings as sub-headings in the introduction section, is that correct? 2) A similar problem occurs with the Conclusions / Summary and Acknowledgements sections. As far as I know, the current APA Style does not define these two as separate manuscript parts anymore, so should I completely delete those two parts, maintain them as main sections (using a level 1 heading) nevertheless or are these now parts within the discussion? Thank you very much for giving the opportunity to ask these questions here and for your time and efforts! Sincerely yours, Kevin Hilbert
Thank you for your questions. APA Style does not indeed provide clear answers to them. So perhaps it would be wise to consult directly to APA regarding this.
We as editors can only reply these from our perspective (and as many universities and journals slightly modify APA Style, you may find help from the manuals for whomever you are writing your piece).
Here are our standpoints:
1. Sub-headings facilitate structuring the introduction and therefore are welcome. Sub-headings make the text for more graspable for the reader. However, the first sub-heading should be a level 2 heading, as level 1 heading is the introduction (which however is not written as a title, so it's more of a mental level 1 heading).
2. APA Style (p. 63) allows to suggest that a summary would belong to the Discussion and hence be a level 2 heading. Acknowledgements however are a separate entity that do not belong to any other part, so they do deserve a level 1 heading. Still, determining whether APA would agree to the JEPS guidelines is more of a detective work, which we would gladly not undertake.
Should you consult them, we would be very happy to hear what they reckon on these matters.
All the best with your writing,
JEPS Editorial Board
Dear JEPS Editors! We are working on a research and we were wondering how you can refer to people. We did some intervieuws and we are wondering how we can add these individuals in our referencelist. Are there any APA rules regarding this topic? Thanks in advance!
Thank you for your question!
Well, for APA style its important that your source would have some academic relevance, therefore personal communication (an interview could be an example) is not referred to in the references list. In text, you should refer to the person so:
S. Hawking (personal communication, January 21, 2012) or (S. Hawking, personal communication, January 21, 2012). If the interviews serve as the data you reported, then the interviewee's name should be not shown and replaced by a codename or a pseudonym.
I hope this helps, see more information in the APA Manual on page 179.
Formatting tables: how should the columns be aligned? Concerning consistency: what is the best solution if I have data in one table that ranges from let´s say .05 to 100.67, how to decide how many decimal points to report? Usually numbers over 100 do not require the reporting of any decimal points, if I am not mistaken.
The manual does not seem to regulate that but please do consult with the APA, APA style experts to be sure: http://www.apastyle.org/contact.aspx
Should the exact p-values be reported or is p<.05 and p<.001 enough? Do the rules differ for text and tables?
Generally p<.05 or p<.01 or p<.001 is enough for statistically significant results. However, should p>.05 some authors prefer to state the exact p if they want to argue that for example the p might end up being <.05 if sample size was bigger and then they might indicate that p=.06, for example.
The test statistics and significance levels are already presented in a table - do I need to repeat these numbers in the text when describing main findings?
No, the function of the table is to supplement the text not repeat it. Rather, refer to the table for statistics you discuss in the text.
Dear JEPS Editors, I am writing my thesis and have some questions regarding references ... How do I cite a lecture, that is available online (video), like a TED talk or youtube video in general? And also, how do I cite if I want to use a quote from someone that I found in a book (not written by the author of the quote)? Thank you!
Thank you for your question. I will answer your three questions subsequently:
1. Regarding the lecture, you should cite it in the following manner:If you refer to a video sequence that is widely distributed and accessible internationally, as I suppose the Video you refer to (TED talk or youtube video), you should cite this way:
Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
If the source does have limited availability, then you should stick to this example:
Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Available from Purdue University Pictures, 500 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907)
2. The second question refers to the domain of citing a secondary source, which according to APA guidlines should be resolved the following: Use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English. If you still want to cite the secondary source, you should handle it as follows:
Locate the following information for your primary source: author(s), title, year published, publication, volume and pages used.Then, organize the information so that it appears as follows: Author(s). (Year). "Title." Publication, Volume, Page Number(s). If you were reading the works of Smith and Jones when you found your secondary source, the citation would appear as follows: Smith and Jones. (1999). "The Effects of Coca Cola on the Brain." World Nutrition Journal, 109, 98-104. Moreover,use the following citation in the text of your work to refer to the secondary source: "In (secondary source author's) work, (as cited in Smith and Jones, 1999), ..."
I hope that might have answered your questions. If not feel free to contact us again :)
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